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Cutter Entry Angle (Plunge Angle)

The approach angle that the cutting tool feeds to depth is referred to as Cutter Entry Angle. This angle creates radial and axial stress on the machine spindle and the cutting tool during the material removal process. The following information provides background information to help determine base-line starting values for your setup.

High speed electric spindles designed for routing applications are equipped with bearings capable of achieving high rotating speeds and enduring high radial loads (side cutting). For best performance and increased spindle bearing life axial cutting load should be kept low. One way to do this is keeping the entry angle of the cutting tool low, 0º to 20º off the table (for a vertical mounted spindles). Using a low entry angle will allow the use of higher feed rates; for most applications up to 100% calculated values. When the work piece features require a steep entry angle, the feed rate must be reduced to reduce axial load preventing damage to the spindle bearings. Refer to the feed rate chart plunge diagram for various plunge angles. By using low entry angle axial forces axial forces can be minimized and provide longer bearing life. Above all, avoid "crashes" of the spindle into the table, fixtures and work-piece. If your application involves steep plunge cuts producing high axial loads, PDS offers special spindles for these applications. For details, contact the PDS Application group for recommendations.